The Effects of Metaverse Related Self-determination on Intention to Continuous Use Through Intrinsic Motivation: Moderating Effect of Member Trust

Inho Hwang


COVID-19 is forcing people to minimize face-to-face networking activities between members of society, and they are increasing their use of online platforms. In particular, interest in the metaverse, a virtual community with enhanced realism, is growing. Specifically, this study suggests a mechanism to improve the intention to continuous use of metaverse users by using the self-determination theory, and confirms that trust between metaverse members moderates the relationship between self-determination and intrinsic motivation. We obtained 353 samples through a questionnaire targeting those who have used metaverse and verified the hypothesis through structural equation modeling. As a result of the analysis, individual self-determination of the metaverse formed intrinsic motivation such as identification and enjoyment, which affected the intention to continue use, and the trust of metaverse members partially moderated the relationship between self-determination and motivation. The result contributes to the sustainability of the metaverse platform by suggesting an approach to users and the environment to improve the intention of continuous use of metaverse.

Full Text:



Arpaci, I., Al-Emran, M., and Al-Sharafi, M. A., “The impact of knowledge management practices on the acceptance of massive open online courses (MOOCs) by engineering students: A cross-cultural comparison,” Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 54, pp. 101468, 2020.

Blader, S. L. and Tyler, T. R., “Testing and extending the group engagement model: Linkages between social identity, procedural justice, economic outcomes, and extrarole behavior,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp. 445-464, 2009.

Chen, M., Chai, C. S., Jong, M. S. Y., and Chao, G. C. N., “Modeling learners’ self-concept in chinese descriptive writing based on the affordances of a virtual reality-supported environment,” Education and Information Technologies, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 6013-6032, 2021.

Cohen, D., Landau, D. H., Friedman, D., Hasler, B. S., Levit-Binnun, N., and Golland, Y., “Exposure to social suffering in virtual reality boosts compassion and facial synchrony,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 122, p. 106781, 2021.

Costarelli, S. and Calla, R. M., “A social identity threat and experienced affect: The distinct roles of intergroup attributions and social identification,” Current Research in Social Psychology, Vol. 10, No. 10, pp. 137-148, 2005

Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M., “Self-determination theory: When mind mediates behavior,” The Journal of Mind and Behavior, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 33-43, 1980.

Emergen Research, Metaverse Market, By Component (Hardware, Software), By Platform (Desktop, Mobile), By Offerings (Virtual Platforms, Asset Marketplaces, and Others) By Technology (Blockchain, VR & AR, Mixed Reality), By Application, By End-use, and By Region Forecast to 2028, 2021.

Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F., “Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 39-50, 1981.

Geng, S., Yang, P., Gao, Y., Tan, Y., and Yang, C., “The effects of ad social and personal relevance on consumer ad engagement on social media: The moderating role of platform trust,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 122, p. 106834, 2021.

Gillespie, N. and Dietz, G., “Trust repair after an organization-level failure,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 127-145, 2009.

Hallem, Y., Abbes, I., Hikkerova, L., and Taga, M. P. N., “A trust model for collaborative redistribution platforms: A platform design issue,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 170, p. 120943, 2021.

Hamari, J., “Why do people buy virtual goods? attitude toward virtual good purchases versus game enjoyment,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 299-308, 2015.

Hooi, R. and Cho, H., “Virtual world continuance intention,” Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1454-1464, 2017.

Huang, Y. C., Backman, K. F., Backman, S. J., and Chang, L. L., “Exploring the implications of virtual reality technology in tourism marketing: An integrated research framework,” International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 116-128, 2016.

Huang, Y. C., Backman, S. J., Backman, K. F., McGuire, F. A., and Moore, D., “An investigation of motivation and experience in virtual learning environments: A self-determination theory,” Education and Information Technologies, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp, 591-611, 2019.

Hwang. I., “The effects of internal communication, techno-stress, and task-technology fit on intention of continuous use of enterprise content management system,” The Journal of Society for e-Business Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 133-153, 2021.

Jang, Y. and Park, E., “An adoption model for virtual reality games: The roles of presence and enjoyment,” Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 42, p. 101239, 2019.

Kim, H., Ock, J., and Heo, K., “The influence of multidimensional structure of sport-fan attendance motivation on team attachment & sponsorship effect: Focused on self-determination theory,” The Korean Journal of Advertising and Public Relations, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 36-64, 2011.

Kim, M. J. and Hall, C. M., “A hedonic motivation model in virtual reality tourism: Comparing visitors and non-visitors,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 46, pp. 236-249, 2019.

Kim, M. J., Lee, C. K., and Preis, M. W., “The impact of innovation and gratification on authentic experience, subjective well-being, and behavioral intention in tourism virtual reality: The moderating role of technology readiness,” Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 49, p. 101349, 2020.

Kwon, D. J. Kim, J. Yu, C., and Kim, S., “An empirical study applying the self-determination factors to flow and satisfaction of SmartPhone,” The Jounal of Society for e-Business Studies, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 197-220, 2011.

Lee, J. and Kim, H., “The effects of mmorpg user’s self-determination and belongingness on loyalty and WOM through avatar self-identification,” The Journal of Internet Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 75-97, 2020.

Li, R., Lu, Y., Ma, J., and Wang, W., “Examining gifting behavior on live streaming platforms: An identity-based motivation model,” Information & Management, Vol. 58, No. 6, pp. 103406, 2021.

Li, Y. and Wang, X., “Seeking health information on social media: A perspective of trust, self-determination, and social support,” Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 1-22, 2018.

Lin, G. C., Wen, Z., Marsh, H. W., and Lin, H. S., “Structural equation models of latent interactions: Clarification of orthogonalizing and double-mean-centering strategies,” Structural Equation Modeling, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 374-391, 2010.

Liu, W. C., Wang, C. J., Tan, O. S., Koh, C., and Ee, J., “A self-determination approach to understanding students’ motivation in project work,” Learning and Individual Differences, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 139-145, 2009.

Luna-Nevarez, C. and McGovern, E., “The rise of the virtual reality (VR) marketplace: Exploring the antecedents and consequences of consumer attitudes toward v-commerce,” Journal of Internet Commerce, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 167-194, 2021.

Mancini, T., Imperato, C., and Sibilla, F., “Does avatar’s character and emotional bond expose to gaming addiction? Two studies on virtual self-discrepancy, avatar identification and gaming addiction in massively multiplayer online role-playing game players,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 92, pp. 297-305, 2019.

Martela, F., Hankonen, N., Ryan, R. M., and Vansteenkiste, M., “Motivating voluntary compliance to behavioural restrictions: Self-determination theory-based checklist of principles for COVID-19 and other emergency communications,” European Review of Social Psychology, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 305-347, 2021.

Menard, P., Bott, G. J., and Crossler, R. E., “User motivations in protecting information security: Protection motivation theory versus self-determination theory,” Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 1203-1230, 2017.

Mouakket, S., “Factors influencing continuance intention to use social network sites: The facebook case,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 53, pp. 102-110, 2015.

Mystakidis, S., “Metaverse,” Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 486-497, 2022.

Nunnally, J. C., Psychometric Theory (2nd ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

Oh. J., “A study on factors affecting the intention to use the metaverse by applying the extended technology acceptance model(ETAM): Focused on the virtual world metaverse,” Journal of the Korea Contents Association, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp. 204-216, 2021.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., and Podsakoff, N. P., “Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88, No. 5, pp. 879-903, 2003.

Qin, Y., “Attractiveness of game elements, presence, and enjoyment of mobile augmented reality games: The case of pokémon go,” Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 62, p. 101620, 2021.

Ryan, R. M. and Deci, E. L., “When rewards compete with nature: The undermining of intrinsic motivation and self-regulation,” New York: NY: Academic Press, 2000.

Salvatore, D., Numerato, D., and Fattore, G., “Physicians’ professional autonomy and their organizational identification with their hospital,” BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 1-11, 2018.

Shen, B., Tan, W., Guo, J., Zhao, L., and Qin, P., “How to promote user purchase in metaverse? A systematic literature review on consumer behavior research and virtual commerce application design,” Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 23, pp. 11087, 2021.

Shin, S., :The Three Big Tech Companies Took the Steering Wheel. If You Miss the 9500 Trillion Won Market, There is No Future,“ The Chosunilbo, 2021. 12. 16. Retrieved from

Skiba, T. and Wildman, J. L., “Uncertainty reducer, exchange deepener, or self-determination enhancer? Feeling trust versus feeling trusted in supervisor-subordinate relationships,” Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 219-235, 2019.

Silva, C., Bouchard, S., and Bélanger, C., “Children’s perception of phobogenic stimuli in virtual reality,” International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, Advance online publication, p. 100417, 2021.

Smart, J., Casscio, J., and Paffendorf, J., “Metaverse Roadmap Overview: Pathways to the 3D Web,” 2007. Retrieved

Tan, H. H. and Tan, C. S., “Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor and trust in organization,” Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, Vol. 126, No. 2, pp. 241-260, 2000.

Tandon, A., Dhir, A., Kaur, P., Kushwah, S., and Salo, J., “Why do people buy organic food? The moderating role of environmental concerns and trust,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 57, p. 102247, 2020.

Tsai, T. H., Chang, Y. S., Chang, H. T., and Lin, Y. W., “Running on a social exercise platform: Applying self-determination theory to increase motivation to participate in a sporting event,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 114, p. 106523, 2021.

Vallerand, R. J., “Deci and ryan’s self-determination theory: A view from the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation,” Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 312-318, 2000.

Vargo, D., Zhu, L., Benwell, B., and Yan, Z., “Digital technology use during COVID-19 pandemic: A rapid review,” Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 13-24, 2021.

Verhagen, T., Swen, E., Feldberg, F., and Merikivi, J., “Benefitting from virtual customer environments: An empirical study of customer engagement,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 48, pp. 340-357, 2015.

Yang, X., “Exchanging social support in social commerce: The role of peer relations,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 124, p. 106911, 2021.

Zhao, Y., Wang, A., and Sun, Y., “Technological environment, virtual experience, and MOOC continuance: A stimulus-organism-response perspective,” Computers & Education, Vol. 144, p. 103721, 2020.


  • There are currently no refbacks.